Black hole facts
Black hole facts: Imagine a matter packed so tightly that nothing can leave it. No moon, no planet, not even light. Such black holes are the points at which the gravitational force is so great that it is a danger for everything that accidentally crosses the fatal line near the black hole. We often talk about where black holes come from and why they are so important. Below you will find ten facts about black holes – refresh your knowledge of these beautiful objects in memory.
Dying stars create stellar black holes.
Black hole facts: Let’s say you have a star 20 times more massive than our Sun. Our Sun is slowly burning out; When the nuclear fuel is over, the Sun slowly turns into a white dwarf. But in the case of more massive stars this does not happen. When they run out of fuel, gravity suppresses the natural pressure of the star and squeezes it outward. When the pressure of nuclear reactions collapses, gravity clamps the star cruelly into the core, its outer layers fly apart in space. This is called a supernova. The remaining nucleus collapses into a singularity – a point with infinite density and with almost zero volume. Singularity is the heart of a black hole.
You can not see the black hole directly.
Since the black hole is truly black – the light can not leave its limits – it can not be seen directly using our instruments, regardless of what type of electromagnetic radiation you see (visible light, x-rays, whatever). But we can observe the effects that a black hole has on the nearest environment. Let’s say the star was too close to a black hole. The black hole, of course, attracts the star and tears it apart. When the matter of the star begins to be absorbed by the black hole, it accelerates, becomes hotter and shines brightly in the X-ray spectrum.
It was believed that the nearest black hole – in 1600 light years.
The erroneous measurement of the V4641 Sagittarius led to the news that the nearest black hole is too close to Earth, only 1600 light years. Not close enough to create danger, but much closer than you thought. Further research has shown that the black hole is far away. Looking at the rotation of her companion star, as well as other factors, scientists in 2014 provided more accurate results – 20,000 light years.
Black holes are of different sizes.
Black hole facts: There are at least three different types of black holes, says NASA, ranging from relatively small to those that are located in the centers of galaxies. Primary black holes are the smallest ones, their sizes are from one atom to the whole mountain. Star black holes, the most common type, are up to 20 times more massive than our Sun. And there are monsters in the centers of galaxies – super massive black holes. They reach millions of masses of the Sun and more. As these monsters are formed, it is still unclear.
Strange things are happening around black holes.
This is best illustrated by the following example. One person (let’s call him the Loser) falls into a black hole, while the other person (Lucky) looks. From the point of view of Lucky, the Failure clock will tick more and more slowly and slowly. This is because, according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, time depends on how fast you move when you are approaching extreme near-light speeds. A black hole distorts space and time to such an extent that the time of the Loser is slower. However, from his point of view, the clock is going well, and the Lucky one is in a hurry.
The first black hole was found only with the advent of X-ray astronomy.
Black hole facts: Cygnus X-1 was first discovered during ballooning in the 1960s, but for another ten years this object was not identified as a black hole. According to NASA, this black hole is 10 times more massive than the Sun. Next to it is a blue star super giant, about 20 times more massive than the Sun. A black hole sucks this star, and it glows brightly in the X-ray spectrum.
Black holes are science fiction favorites.
So many films with the participation of black holes have been shot, that it is impossible to list them all. Of the latter, Christopher Nolan’s Interstellar can be noted – in it people travel through the Universe to look at a black hole. “Event Horizon” explores the phenomenon of artificial black holes – something similar was discussed in the “Star Trek”. Obviously, these mysterious objects that distort our perception of reality and simply do not fit into the mind of an ordinary person, are very popular among writers, screenwriters and filmmakers – in general, not ordinary people.
We do not know if there are wormholes.
Black hole facts: A popular topic for a sci-fi story is when someone falls into a black hole. Some people believe that these objects are a kind of wormholes, mole norms, to other parts of the universe, allowing you to travel faster than the speed of light. But the truth is that we still do not know how to describe them from the point of view of physics. “We do not yet have a theory that would unify the general theory of relativity with quantum mechanics, we do not know the entire zoo of possible space-time structures that could accommodate wormholes,” says Avi Loeb, a physicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
In the Milky Way, most likely, there is a black hole.
Obviously, many care about the question of how dangerous a black hole is and whether it threatens the Earth at least some opportunity to be absorbed by this object? Answer: no, astronomers say, although there is a certain probability that a huge super massive black hole is hiding in the center of our galaxy. Fortunately, we are far enough from this monster – about two-thirds of our galaxy from the center – but we can observe its effects from afar. The European Space Agency claims that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way is a million times more massive than our Sun and is surrounded by surprisingly hot gas.
Black holes are dangerous only if you find yourself too close.
Black hole facts: As people in the horizon, we can observe black holes only if we are outside the horizon of events. we can imagine it as the gravitational field of the planet. This zone is a point of no return, if you come too close, you will no longer have a chance to escape. But outside of this area behind the black hole can be safely observed. In a broader sense, this means that a black hole is unlikely to absorb the entire universe (unless, of course, in our understanding of the physics of the cosmos there is a serious overthrow).