18.Gold – 56 dollars per gram.
expensive substances Gold has long been considered the most expensive thing on earth. But its main value was that it could serve as a universal currency, liquid almost all over the world. In addition to traditional use in the jewelry industry, gold can be used as an electrical conductor and to prevent corrosion. Gold is a very heavy metal: the density of pure gold is 19.621 kg / m3 (a ball of pure gold with a diameter of 46 mm has a mass of 1 kg).
Among metals in terms of density, it takes the sixth place: after osmium, iridium, rhenium, platinum and plutonium. High density of gold facilitates its extraction. The simplest technological processes, such as, for example, flushing at locks, can provide a very high degree of gold recovery from the washed rock.
17. Rhodium – about 58 dollars per gram.
expensive substances Rhodium is used mainly in catalytic converters to reduce car carbon emissions. This metal does not play any biological role.
Rhodium compounds are rare in everyday life and their effects on the human body have not been fully understood. Despite this, they are highly toxic and carcinogenic substances. Rhodium salts can strongly color the human skin.
16. Platinum – about 60 dollars per gram.
expensive substances Platinum and its alloys are widely used for the production of jewelry. Annually, the world jewelry industry consumes about 50 tons of platinum. Currently, China annually sells about 10 million pieces of platinum with a total mass of about 25 tons.
The Russian demand for jewelry platinum is 0.1% of the world level. Platinum, gold and silver are the basic metals performing a monetary function. However, platinum was used to make coins for several millennia later than gold and silver.
The world’s first platinum coins were issued and were in circulation in the Russian Empire from 1828 to 1845. The largest existing platinum nugget at the moment is the “Ural giant” weighing 7 kg 860.5 g. It was discovered in 1904 on the Isovsky mine. Now it is stored in the Diamond Fund of the Moscow Kremlin.
15. Methamphetamine – $ 100 per gram.
expensive substances The Methamphetamine hydrochloride was produced in the USSR until the 1970s in the form of 3 mg tablets called pervitin. Methamphetamine is a psychstimulant with an extremely high additively potential, and is therefore widely used as a drug.
There are cases of smoking crystals of methamphetamine hydrochloride (“ice”, “ice”, “glass”), which for this purpose are sometimes specially prepared in the form of large crystals (rather than fine powder). This is the most additive method of application. With proper individual dosing, methamphetamine reduces the feeling of fatigue, causes a surge of energy, increases mental and physical performance, reduces the need for sleep, this allows you to work around the clock, often used by low-wage workers in Asia) and suppresses appetite.
14. Rhinoceros horn – $ 110 per gram.
expensive substances The horn is valued in Vietnam for its alleged ability to treat cancer. Its medical use also includes the treatment of fevers and other diseases.
If the rhino horn is cut or damaged, most likely the animal will not survive, but in young individuals it can grow again. Nobody knows what its real function is, although females whose horn is removed, for some reason completely stop looking after their offspring.
The rhinoceroses are endangered, and first of all this is due to the huge demand for their horns. The horn of the African rhino is also very much appreciated in the Middle East, especially in Yemen, both for medical reasons and for the manufacture of traditional daggers. Since 1970, 67,050 kg of rhinoceros horns have been imported into Yemen. With an average mass of one horn of 3 kg, this means that 22,350 rhinos were killed.
13. Heroin – 131 dollars per gram
expensive substances High-quality heroin can cost up to $ 130 per gram. This opiate is injected intravenously, sniffed and smoked to change consciousness.
According to data provided in the report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) – at the end of 2009, Russia ranks first in the world in terms of the amount of heroin consumed. On average, about 80 tons of the drug are consumed per year, which is 20% of the world’s heroin consumption. Physical and chemical properties: Pure substance is a white crystalline powder. The crude product is a bitterish, grayish-brown powder in the form of fine crystals with an unpleasant odor.
12. Cocaine – $ 215 per gram
expensive substances Cocaine is the methyl ester of benzoylecgonine, a tropane series alkaloid, has local anesthetic and narcotic effects.Along with other alkaloids, it is found in plants of the genus Erythroxylum, in particular: the Coca bush (Erythroxylum coca), Erythroxylum laetevirens, etc. Cocaine is the second, after opiates, “problem drug”, a narcotic substance whose abuse represents a significant socioeconomic problem. Currently, cocaine is the most common drug.
The popularity of this narcotic substance is determined by its stimulating effect, mood improvement and increased efficiency. By itself, cocaine has no pronounced taste and smell, organoleptic properties are provided by the impurities present in the composition of the mixture.
World consumption of cocaine is estimated by experts at about 750 tons per year, and about a third of this volume falls on the US, which are the largest consumers of this drug.
11. LSD – 3 000 dollars a gram
expensive substances In crystalline form it costs about 3000 dollars per gram. A psychoactive substance in Russia is legally classified as a drug. Like most similar surfactants, LSD does not cause physical dependence. LSD is sensitive to the effects of oxygen, ultraviolet light and chlorine (if it is a solution), but in the dark, with low humidity and low temperature can be stored for many years.
In its pure form, LSD has no color, smell and slightly bitter taste. It is used, as a rule, by oral route, for example, with the help of a small piece of paper (“brand”) impregnated with a solution of a substance, or a piece of sugar, or in the form of gelatin.
In liquid form, LSD can be taken in the form of drops (hence the English expression “drop the acid” – literally “drip acid”) or injected with intramuscular or intravenous injection.
10. Plutonium – $ 4,000
expensive substances Plutonium – a heavy base chemical element, which is due to its origin “Big Bang” in the universe.
Heavy fragile radioactive metal is silvery white. In the periodic table is located in the family of actinides. It is widely used in the production of nuclear weapons, nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors of civil and research use and as a source of energy for space vehicles.
Plutonium was very often used in nuclear bombs. The historical fact is the dumping of a nuclear bomb on Nagasaki in 1945, the United States. The bomb dropped on this city contained 6.2 kg of plutonium. The explosion power was 21 kilotons.
9. Painite – 9 000 dollars
expensive substances Painite is a representative of rare minerals. For many years there were only three of its crystals.
Before 2005, about 25 crystals were found, most of the rocks were found in Burma. Initially, many of the known Painite crystals were in private collections, and the remaining ones were divided between the British Museum of Natural History, the Institute of Gemology of America, the California Institute of Technology and the Research Laboratory for Gemstones in Lucerne, Switzerland. It is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the rarest mineral in the world.
8. Taaffeite – $ 20,000
expensive substances This mineral exists in several colors – from gray-violet to lilac, even found colorless specimens. It is a million times less likely to be found than diamonds. That’s why little was heard of him.
7. Tritium – $ 30,000
expensive substances Industrial tritium is obtained by irradiating lithium-6 with neutrons in nuclear reactors by the following reaction: It is used in military and civilian devices (illumination of compasses, lenses for reading maps in the dark), sighting devices, watches, key chains, emergency inscriptions such as “exit”.
6. Diamonds – 55 000 dollars per gram
Diamonds occupy the third place among the most expensive substances in the world. To form a diamond, specific conditions are required, so on the ground they can be found in the lithosphere and meteorites that fall to the ground. Despite the abundance of diamonds, people continue to appreciate it as a rare and expensive mineral.
5. California 252 – 60 thousand dollars per gram
expensive substances Obtained artificially in 1950 by the Seaborg group at the University of California at Berkeley. The first solid compounds of California – 249Cf2O3 and 249CfOCl were obtained in 1958. The greatest use was found for the isotope 252Cf. It is used as a powerful neutron source in neutron activation analysis, in radiation therapy of tumors. In addition, the 252Cf isotope is used in experiments to study spontaneous fission of nuclei.
4. Americas – $ 140,000 per gram
expensive substances Another transplutonium metal with a very long half-life, which can reach up to 8,000 years.
Do not be afraid, americium-241 is used most often in production. It disintegrates over 450 years, although we understand that it does not make it any easier for you. But this metal is extremely useful – the equipment with Amer. 241 is also used to remove electrostatic charges from plastics, synthetic films and paper. It is located inside some smoke detectors (~ 0.26 microgram per detector).
3. Regolith (lunar soil) – $ 442,500 (for 0.6 g)
expensive substances Regolith – this is what covers the surface not only of the Moon, but of all atmospheres less planets.
Say, the same Mars. But the Moon is the closest planet to us, to which, theoretically, it is possible to fly, and it is possible to send lunar rovers there so in general every week. What does regolith consist of? Nothing remarkable: Limonite, Olivine, Anorthite, Pyroxene – all this can be found on Earth.
However, in 1993, at Sotheby’s auction, three “moon pebbles” weighing 0.6 grams, brought to our planet by a Soviet research shuttle, were sold for $ 442,500. Why so expensive? So from the moon!
2. Graphene – $ 100 million (per sq. Cm)
expensive substances The invention of the authorship of Constantine Novoselov, it is difficult to measure in grams, because it practically does not weigh anything.
So you measure one centimeter. What it is? The two-dimensional allotropic modification of carbon, millions of times thinner than the finest human hair, so it’s hard to see.
Why the hell is he needed? They say that based on graphene it is possible to assemble a ballistic transistor, to use it in super capacitors to obtain rechargeable current sources and to manufacture LEDs.
1. Antimatter – 62.5 trillion dollars per gram
expensive substances: The most expensive substance worth 62.5 trillion dollars is antimatter or antimatter. Its price is not quantifiable. At a meeting with an ordinary substance it explodes and turning into light so it is practically impossible to save anything.
However, during the experiment the scientists created anti-protons at the CERN accelerator and locked them in a vacuum chamber. Simultaneously radioactive material positrons were created and placed in another cell. Combining them anti-hydrogen was created.